剑桥大学Re:think论文比赛隆重登场-时间安排-报名通道-赛题-辅导

Re:think 论文写作比赛

剑桥国际研究中心 (CCIR) 组织的剑桥 Re:think 论文竞赛,由来自哈佛、麻省理工、加州伯克利、布朗、剑桥和牛津的教授联合出题,是一个覆盖多学科领域的思想盛会。它旨在激发青少年对一系列引人深思且常常具有争议性的话题进行思考与探索。这些话题跨越历史、科技、社会学、生物技术、法律等领域,鼓励参赛者挑战固有的规范和信念。通过剑桥 Re:think 论文竞赛,我们希望为青少年提供一个平台,分享他们对过去和未来紧迫问题的观点,增进对世界和社会的理解,并提出创新的解决方案来应对当代社会面临的紧迫挑战。

本次竞赛全部由来自哈佛大学、麻省理工学院、布朗大学、加州大学伯克利分校、剑桥大学、牛津大学等顶尖学府的教授亲自命题。包含哲学、法律、社会学、基因科学、商业、人工智能等11个问题,参赛者可以任选一题。

在每个写作话题上,教授们详细阐述了提出该问题的缘由,以及为何这个问题对于当前社会至关重要。最终颁奖仪式和晚宴将会在剑桥大学国王学院举行。

剑桥 Re:think 论文竞赛现向全球青少年开放,参赛无需缴纳任何报名费。我们热忱欢迎来自不同背景的青少年参与。本次竞赛旨在鼓励青少年提出创新和独特的见解,共同构建一个多元化和充满活力的思想交流平台。

咨询委员会及评审团

剑桥Re:think征文比赛由一个受人尊敬的咨询委员会指导,该委员会由来自全球精英大学的杰出学者和专家组成。这些委员会成员来自哈佛大学、剑桥大学、牛津大学和麻省理工学院等著名机构,在各个学科都拥有不同的专业知识。

他们在塑造比赛中发挥着举足轻重的作用,为策划主题和框架贡献了自己的见解。他们的集体知识和学术指导确保了比赛的相关性、学术严谨性和知识深度,为有抱负的人参与发人深省的话题和想法奠定了基础。

很荣幸邀请这些杰出教授参与今年的比赛。

比赛的评审团由来自哈佛大学、麻省理工学院、斯坦福大学、剑桥大学和牛津大学的顶尖研究人员和教授组成,采用严格的双盲评审过程。

2024年剑桥Re:Think征文比赛时间安排

适合学生

全球青少年

参赛者需要年龄在14至18岁之间的学生,且尚未开始本科学习。

活动时间

● 比赛开始时间:2024年1月15日
● 论文提交截止日期:2024 年 5 月 10 日
● 结果公布:2024年6月25日
● 剑桥大学颁奖典礼和晚宴:2024年7月30日

论文要求

不超过2000字(此字数不包括脚注和参考书目)

请使用一致的字体格式,并将行距设置为1.5倍间距

所有提交的内容都将通过抄袭和人工智能检查器进行处理。因此,我们希望所有提交的内容都能得到正确引用。本次比赛的引用格式为MLA 8,即现代语言协会第8版格式。

论文必须以PDF格式提交。在PDF文档中,请删除您的姓名、所属单位或任何个人信息,以确保盲审。您将被要求在提交系统中提供个人信息。

奖项设置

🏅金奖(10名全球获奖者)

-150美元现金奖励

-500美元CCIR学院奖学金

-数字获奖证书

-获奖者受邀参与CCIR播客和网站专访

-受邀参加剑桥大学颁奖典礼和晚宴(免费)

🏅银奖(10名全球获奖者)

-100美元现金奖励

-300美元CCIR学院奖学金

-数字获奖证书

-获奖者受邀参与CCIR播客和网站专访

-受邀参加剑桥大学颁奖典礼和晚宴(免费)

🏅铜奖(10名全球获奖者)

-50美元现金奖励

-200美元CCIR学院奖学金

-数字证书

-获奖者受邀参与CCIR播客和网站专访

-受邀参加剑桥大学颁奖典礼和晚宴(免费)

🏅特别奖项(各1名全球获奖者)

-The Logos Prize for Best Argument

-The Pathos Prize for Best Writing

-The Ethos Prize for Best Research

-特别奖项的奖励与金奖相同

2024 Re:think 赛事主题

今年的比赛旨在强调话语、辩论和批判性分析在解决九个领域的复杂社会问题方面的重要性,包括:宗教与政治,政治学和法律,语言学,环境,社会学与哲学,商业与投资,公共卫生与可持续发展,遗传学,生物技术学,人工智能,神经工程学,11个领域,集结哈佛、剑桥、牛津、麻省理工等名校大牛教授学者,官方论文指南+推荐书单

Religion and Politics

Why has religion remained a force in a secular world? 

为什么宗教在世俗世界中仍然是一股力量?

教授点评

可以说,发达国家在上个世纪左右变得更加世俗化。例如,基督教的影响力已经减弱,人们的生活世界较少受到信仰和对教会的忠诚的影响。相反,一直有争论认为我们生活在一个后世俗世界中。毕竟,宗教——无论是在信仰、超越性还是意义方面——都可能被视为一个由完全亵渎的标准(如经济理性、进步主义或科学)统治的幻灭世界的替代品。宗教的复兴是对过去过去的苍白提醒,还是为未来提供了希望的源泉?

阅读清单

‘Religion in the Public Sphere’ by Jürgen Habermas (European Journal of Philosophy, 2006)

In this paper, philosopher Jürgen Habermas discusses the limits of church-state separation, emphasizing the significant contribution of religion to public discourse when translated into publicly accessible reasons.

‘Public Religions in the Modern World’ by José Casanova (University Of Chicago Press, 1994)

Sociologist José Casanova explores the global emergence of public religion, analyzing case studies from Catholicism and Protestantism in Spain, Poland, Brazil, and the USA, challenging traditional theories of secularization.

‘The Power of Religion in the Public Sphere’ by Judith Butler, Jürgen Habermas, Charles Taylor, and Cornel West (Edited by Eduardo Mendieta and Jonathan VanAntwerpen, Columbia University Press, 2011)

This collection features dialogues by prominent intellectuals on the role of religion in the public sphere, examining various approaches and their impacts on cultural, social, and political debates.

‘Rethinking Secularism’ by Craig Calhoun, Mark Juergensmeyer, and Jonathan VanAntwerpen (Oxford University Press, 2011)

An interdisciplinary examination of secularism, this book challenges traditional views, highlighting the complex relationship between religion and secularism in contemporary global politics.

‘God is Back: How the Global Rise of Faith is Changing the World’ by John Micklethwait and Adrian Wooldridge (Penguin, 2010)

Micklethwait and Wooldridge argue for the coexistence of religion and modernity, suggesting that religious beliefs can contribute to a more open, tolerant, and peaceful modern world.

‘Multiculturalism’ by Tariq Modood (Polity Press, 2013)

Sociologist Tariq Modood emphasizes the importance of multiculturalism in integrating diverse identities, particularly in post-immigration contexts, and its role in shaping democratic citizenship.

‘God’s Agents: Biblical Publicity in Contemporary England’ by Matthew Engelke (University of California Press, 2013)

In this ethnographic study, Matthew Engelke explores how a group in England seeks to expand the role of religion in the public sphere, challenging perceptions of religion in post-secular England.

Political Science and Law

What are the arguments for and against prison abolitionism?
支持和反对废除监狱主义的论据是什么?

教授点评

关于废除监狱主义的辩论对刑事司法系统的有效性和道德性提出了挑战。一方面,大规模监禁对边缘化群体的影响尤为严重,并被认为有助于维持和加深现有的不平等。另一方面,这些社区的一些成员本身已经并将继续倡导“严厉打击犯罪”政策。监狱仅仅是惩罚性的,还是能有效地解决犯罪的根源?我们应该废除监狱,还是应该重新构想和重组监狱,以实现恢复性司法?思考这些问题不仅需要解决我们关于监狱影响的经验证据,而且还需要谨慎地明确我们希望在一个规范公正的未来实现什么。

阅读清单

‘All About Love’ by Bell Hooks

An exploration of love as a transformative practice and its pivotal role within an abolitionist framework.

‘Body and Soul: The Black Panther Party and the Fight Against Medical Discrimination’ by Alondra Nelson

Chronicles the Black Panther Party’s initiatives in healthcare, offering insights into community service and resistance against medical racism.

‘Golden Gulag: Prisons, Surplus, Crisis, and Opposition in Globalizing California’ by Ruth Wilson Gilmore

Examines the origins of California’s prison system and the societal implications of mass incarceration, revealing the ties between financial wealth and prison labor.

‘Freedom Is a Constant Struggle’ by Angela Y. Davis

Explores interconnected struggles against state violence globally, highlighting the interconnectedness of resistance movements.

‘Blood in My Eye’ by George Jackson

A reflection on revolutionary readings, emphasizing the need for solidarity and learning with and from the people.

‘Pedagogy Of The Oppressed’ by Paulo Freire

Emphasizes learning alongside oppressed communities, rejecting a top-down approach in favor of solidarity and mutual learning.

Linguistics

In school we are taught to speak and write “properly”—but what does this mean? Does the idea of a “proper language” play a role, as some have suggested, in maintaining class distinctions and oppressing marginalized groups? If so, should we abandon the idea of linguistic “propriety”, or somehow reconceptualize it?

在学校里,我们被教导要“正确地”说话和写作——但这意味着什么?“适当的语言”的概念是否像一些人所说的那样,在维持阶级区分和压迫边缘化群体方面发挥了作用?如果是这样,我们是应该放弃语言“适当性”的概念,还是以某种方式重新概念化它? 

教授点评

虽然这篇论文标题的想法显然与正在进行的研究有关,尤其是在英国,但问题中的词语选择非常领先(例如“压迫”)。这个问题似乎没有考虑到社会语言学的大领域,该领域非常积极地向公众传播他们的发现。最后,像往常一样练习诅咒记忆并“放弃”某些东西很少是一个好主意,但这应该是揭穿一个神话。也许我们更愿意问:我们如何才能庆祝我们说话方式的多样性,我们如何才能主动打破障碍,从类别的范式转向连续统一体的概念,或者可能更复杂的模型,从普遍存在的“你从哪里来?”的问题转向面向未来的问题“你要去哪里?”。

阅读清单

‘An Introduction to Sociolinguistics’ by Ronald Wardhaugh (1986)

This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of sociolinguistics, delving into the study of language within its social and cultural contexts. It covers various aspects, from language variations to multilingualism, offering insights into the societal influences on language use.

‘Cultish: The Language of Fanaticism’ by Amanda Montell (2021)

Exploring the intricate language and communication patterns within fanaticism and cult-like behavior, Montell navigates through the nuanced ways in which language constructs and perpetuates fanatic ideologies.

‘Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society’ by Peter Trudgill (1974)

In this foundational text, Trudgill introduces readers to the study of language usage in societal settings. It delves into language variations, societal influences on language, and the relationship between language and society.

‘Sociolinguistic Patterns’ by William Labov (1973)

Labov’s work explores the intricate patterns and correlations in sociolinguistics, shedding light on the interplay between language use and societal factors.

‘English with an Accent: Language, Ideology and Discrimination in the United States’ by Rosina Lippi-Green (1997)

Investigating language ideologies and discrimination in the United States, Lippi-Green explores the societal biases related to accents and language variations, offering a critical view of language-based discrimination.

‘Social Linguistics and Literacies: Ideology in Discourses’ by James Paul Gee

Gee delves into the complexities of language ideologies, literacy, and discourse, highlighting how ideologies are embedded in language use and literacy practices in society.

Environment

Does the principle of ‘reduce, reuse, recycle’ actually contribute to reducing global waste, or is it just a myth that distracts from the real issues of overproduction and overconsumption? Should developing countries be held to the same environmental standards as developed countries, despite their different stages of industrialization and economic needs?“减少、再利用、回收”的原则是否真的有助于减少全球浪费,还是只是一个神话,分散了人们对生产过剩和过度消费的真正问题的注意力?发展中国家是否应该遵守与发达国家相同的环境标准,尽管它们处于不同的工业化阶段和经济需求?

教授点评从一开始,我们目前面临的环境危机就与资本主义及其产生的不平等密切相关。我们能解决一个问题而没有另一个吗?当你开始思考这些问题时,想想发达国家和发展中国家之间的历史差异和当前的差距。世界上哪些地区消耗的资源最多,产生的废物最多?谁受气候变化和其他环境灾难的影响最大?最后,评估我们经常应用于环境问题的个人或国家责任框架可能被证明是有用的。它有什么好处和局限性?有没有其他方法可以解决这个问题?

阅读清单

‘The Colors of Nature: Culture, Identity, and the Natural World’ by Alison H. Deming and Lauret E. Savoy

This anthology examines the relationship between culture and nature, showcasing diverse perspectives on environmental justice and the natural world through essays by writers from various backgrounds.

‘Toxic Communities: Environmental Racism, Industrial Pollution, and Residential Mobility’ by Dorceta E. Taylor

Investigating the intersection of environmental toxins and racial discrimination in the U.S., this book highlights the struggles of marginalized communities against industrial pollution and their fight for equitable environmental protections.

‘Braiding Sweetgrass: Indigenous Wisdom, Scientific Knowledge, and the Teachings of Plants’ by Robin Wall Kimmerer

Combining Indigenous knowledge with scientific insight, Kimmerer offers a unique perspective on the interconnectedness of humans and the natural world, emphasizing mutual respect and learning.

‘Environmental Justice: Concepts, Evidence and Politics’ Edited by Gordon Walker

This comprehensive collection provides an in-depth look at the concept of environmental justice, featuring global case studies that illustrate various forms of environmental and societal inequities.

‘A Terrible Thing to Waste: Environmental Racism and Its Assault on the American Mind’ by Harriet A. Washington

Washington delves into how environmental racism, particularly in the form of toxic exposure, disproportionately impacts cognitive development in communities of color, contributing to wider systemic inequalities.

Sociology and Philosophy

Artificial intelligence is increasingly becoming a part of our lives: from Snapchat filters to deepfakes, it is becoming easier than ever for our images to be manipulated by ourselves and others alike in myriad ways.

How will AI change our understanding of beauty? How does the prevalence of AI in our lives cut across our understanding of beauty? What sorts of ethical and political consequences will this have?

人工智能正日益成为我们生活的一部分:从 Snapchat 滤镜到深度伪造,我们的图像比以往任何时候都更容易被我们自己和他人以各种方式操纵。

人工智能将如何改变我们对美的理解?人工智能在我们生活中的盛行如何影响我们对美的理解?这将产生什么样的道德和政治后果?

教授点评

一篇解决这个问题的文章应该考虑我们对美的理解如何与性别、“种族”、阶级、年龄或残疾/健全等社会类别相交。由于人工智能参与我们的生活,不平等可能会加深和加强,或者相反地被削弱。当边缘化的个人或社区参与其中时,这一点变得尤为关键。因此,论文应该在美的范围内,在上述社会类别的框架内讨论人工智能与不平等之间的关系。

阅读清单

‘Life 3.0: Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence’ by Max Tegmark

Traces the historical arc of AI, exploring its societal, philosophical, and ethical implications, prompting readers to contemplate the intricate interplay between technology and human existence.

‘The Alignment Problem: Machine Learning and Human Values’ by Brian Christian

Explores aligning AI systems with human values, delving into ethical dilemmas and the potential for unintended consequences, advocating for proactive approaches in AI development.

‘Human Compatible: Artificial Intelligence and the Problem of Control’ by Stuart Russell

Examines ensuring safe and beneficial AI by aligning its goals with human values, emphasizing responsible AI development to avoid unintended consequences.

‘Artificial Intelligence: A Guide for Thinking Humans’ by Melanie Mitchell

Offers a comprehensive yet accessible exploration of AI’s history, capabilities, and limitations, navigating complex concepts and emphasizing the importance of ethical considerations.

‘Hello World: Being Human in the Age of Algorithms’ by Hannah Fry

Examines the influence of algorithms on modern society across various fields, prompting reflection on the balance between human decision-making and algorithms.

‘Four Futures’ by Peter Frase

Explores potential future scenarios shaped by automation, climate change, and sociopolitical inequality, highlighting the transformative impact of AI and the importance of human choices and values in shaping our world.

Business and Investment

Do overvalued startups with unsustainable business models negatively affect competition and the overall health of the economy? Or are they rather just the regrettable, but unavoidable “bad apples” in a financial and economic system that is rational as a whole?商业模式不可持续的估值过高的初创公司是否会对竞争和经济的整体健康产生负面影响?或者,它们只是一个整体理性的金融和经济体系中令人遗憾但不可避免的“坏苹果”?

教授点评

高估值和高端薪水似乎很有吸引力,但它们对初创企业、创始人、员工和社会有害吗?估值过高的初创企业在市场上超越竞争对手的压力通常会导致创始人管理不善和错误决策,并导致投资者遭受重大经济损失。此外,这种压力会对员工的福祉产生负面影响,而且他们经常会筋疲力尽。令人遗憾的是,这种压力有时会鼓励少数创始人证明这些手段的合理性,并采取不道德的方法在市场上跑赢大盘。

阅读清单

‘Our Lives in Their Portfolios’ by Brett Christophers

Banks have taken a backseat since the global financial crisis over a decade ago. Today, our new financial masters are asset managers, like Blackstone and BlackRock. And they don’t just own financial assets; they possess significant social and economic power.

‘Democratizing Finance’ Edited by Fred Block and Robert Hockett

Argues for an entirely different financial system that benefits the collective instead of empowering the few, reimagining the structure and purpose of finance.

‘Buying Time’ by Wolfgang Streeck

Explores the ongoing financial and economic crisis, examining its complexity and the lack of understanding surrounding it.

‘Rentier Capitalism’ by Brett Christophers

Provides a critique of early-21st-century capitalism, focusing on the concentration of wealth and power.

‘The Morals of the Market’ by Jessica Whyte

Explores the relationship between human rights and neoliberalism, uncovering their place in developing moral frameworks.

Public Health and Sustainability

Discuss the conflict of sustainability, agriculture, and human health.

讨论可持续性、农业和人类健康的冲突。

教授点评

全球气候变化及其引发的极端天气模式正在损害我们可以种植粮食的土地的质量和可用性。此外,对转基因食品(GMO)的强烈反对减缓了生物工程弹性作物的进展。在农业中实施新的基因组编辑技术的好处是否超过了先进技术和生物工程作物对社会的强烈反对?如果监管和社会的强烈反对减缓了作物基因工程的进展,那么哪些人群受由此产生的营养不良和粮食短缺影响最大?

阅读清单

‘The Gene: An Intimate History’ by Siddhartha Mukherjee

Explores the history of gene science, examining debates about gene resequencing, intertwined with family experiences and contributions of key scientists and philosophers.

‘A Brief History of Everyone Who Ever Lived’ by Adam Rutherford

Reveals insights from genetics, shattering beliefs about heritage and identities by unraveling the human genome and its historical implications.

‘The Social Life of DNA’ by Alondra Nelson

Examines genetic genealogy’s impact on issues related to race, exploring uses in reconciling slavery’s aftermath, establishing ties with ancestral homelands, and more.

‘The Code Breaker: Jennifer Doudna, Gene Editing, and the Future of the Human Race’ by Walter Isaacson

Profiles the Nobel Prize-winning scientist Doudna, exploring her career and the revolutionary impact of CRISPR technology on disease treatment.

‘Gene Machine’ by Venki Ramakrishnan

Details the race for understanding the ribosome’s structure, a fundamental discovery that could revolutionize antibiotic development and advance knowledge of life.

‘DNA: The Story of the Genetic Revolution’ by James D. Watson

Charts the scientific journey from the double helix discovery to modern controversies and emerging fields like personal genomics and cancer research.

‘The Making of the Fittest’ by Sean B. Carroll

Discusses DNA’s role in evolution, presenting genetic evidence supporting the theory of evolution and its significance in shaping species.

Genetics

Gene therapy is a medical approach that treats or prevents disease by correcting the underlying genetic problem. Is gene therapy better than traditional medicines? What are the pros and cons of using gene therapy as a medicine? Is gene therapy justifiable?

基因治疗是一种通过纠正潜在的遗传问题来治疗或预防疾病的医学方法。基因治疗比传统药物好吗?使用基因疗法作为药物的利弊是什么?基因治疗合理吗?

教授点评

特别是在 Covid-19 mRNA 疫苗之后,基因疗法的治疗方法越来越有趣。这就是为什么思考这个问题会很有趣。我相信学生们在研究这个主题时会喜欢并学到很多东西。

阅读清单

‘The Gene: An Intimate History’ by Siddhartha Mukherjee

Explores the history of gene science, examining debates about gene resequencing, intertwined with family experiences and contributions of key scientists and philosophers.

‘A Brief History of Everyone Who Ever Lived’ by Adam Rutherford

Reveals insights from genetics, shattering beliefs about heritage and identities by unraveling the human genome and its historical implications.

‘The Social Life of DNA’ by Alondra Nelson

Examines genetic genealogy’s impact on issues related to race, exploring uses in reconciling slavery’s aftermath, establishing ties with ancestral homelands, and more.

‘The Code Breaker: Jennifer Doudna, Gene Editing, and the Future of the Human Race’ by Walter Isaacson

Profiles the Nobel Prize-winning scientist Doudna, exploring her career and the revolutionary impact of CRISPR technology on disease treatment.

‘Gene Machine’ by Venki Ramakrishnan

Details the race for understanding the ribosome’s structure, a fundamental discovery that could revolutionize antibiotic development and advance knowledge of life.

‘DNA: The Story of the Genetic Revolution’ by James D. Watson

Charts the scientific journey from the double helix discovery to modern controversies and emerging fields like personal genomics and cancer research.

‘The Making of the Fittest’ by Sean B. Carroll

Discusses DNA’s role in evolution, presenting genetic evidence supporting the theory of evolution and its significance in shaping species.

Biotechonology

In the near future, there’s a possibility of utilizing cells from various parats of the body to create these germ cells, also known as gametes. This innovative process, called in vitro gametogenesis (IVG), opens up the potential for producing babies using cells sourced from muscle, liver, or blood. Scientists can construct embryos, eggs, and sperm from induced pluripotent stem cells. This technology may open up many applications since, in theory, anyone can make biological babies or clones independent of their gender or age using their somatic cells. Ethical regulations have so far been implemented to limit the study.

Should we move forward with vitro gametogenesis (IVG) further?

在不久的将来,有可能利用来自身体各个部位的细胞来创造这些生殖细胞,也称为配子。这种创新过程称为体外配子发生 (IVG),为使用来自肌肉、肝脏或血液的细胞生产婴儿开辟了潜力。科学家可以从诱导多能干细胞中构建胚胎、卵子和精子。这项技术可能会开辟许多应用,因为从理论上讲,任何人都可以使用他们的体细胞制造独立于其性别或年龄的生物婴儿或克隆人。到目前为止,已经实施了伦理法规来限制这项研究。

我们是否应该进一步推进体外配子发生(IVG)?

教授点评

例如,这项技术可能允许一对同性恋夫妇或任何年龄的一对夫妇生下他们的亲生婴儿。它还可能使年轻女性摆脱生育的社会压力,这可能会从根本上改变我们的社会文化。如果这项技术被释放到世界上,我们最终将面临什么样的世界?哪些类型的法规对于人类适当使用这项技术至关重要?

阅读清单

 ‘The Handmaid’s Tale’ by Margaret Atwood

Atwood’s enduring dystopia remains fresh, drawing parallels to real-world misogyny and offering inspiration to authors exploring feminist dystopias.

‘The Farm’ by Joanne Ramos (Penguin Random House)

Ramos delves into the exploitation of surrogates, particularly women of color, in a thought-provoking narrative that navigates ethical dilemmas within surrogacy.

‘Biotechnology in Context’ by Gale (Gale Virtual Reference Library Ebook, 2012)

An introductory encyclopedia encompassing various articles on reproductive technology, offering historical context, defining key terms, analyzing impacts and issues, and presenting a bibliography connecting readers to relevant research sources.

‘Science and Political Controversy: A Reference Handbook’ by David Newton (EBL E-book, 2014)

This reference handbook explores the intersection of science and politics, including reproductive technologies. It provides background information on the topics and offers resources for further research through an indexed format.

‘Women and Health’ edited by Marlene B. Goldman, Rebecca Troisi, Kathryn M. Rexrode (EBL E-book, 2012)

Addressing health concerns across women’s lifespans, this comprehensive reference includes Chapter 16, focusing on issues related to abortion, providing insights and discussions surrounding this sensitive topic.

Artificial Intelligence

Is AI-driven data mining serving us better or is it overriding our privacy? 

人工智能驱动的数据挖掘是更好地为我们服务,还是凌驾于我们的隐私之上?

教授点评

在一个充斥着有关我们日常生活、日常选择和购买偏好的数据的世界中,我们应该考虑如何使用这些数据以及由谁使用。公司使用这些数据来加强他们的营销目标,这对公司和消费者都非常有帮助。政府可以使用这些数据来识别和跟踪对社会的潜在威胁,从而挽救生命并保护社会免受暴力个人或团体的侵害。但是,我们愿意暴露多少私生活呢?如果一些公司滥用数据并调整价格或通过过度激进地针对消费者来制造伪垄断怎么办?如果一些政府使用相同的信息来跟踪反对政府并损害平民自由的公民怎么办?我们如何在适当的数据挖掘和对相同数据的滥用之间划清界限?答案可能是多方面的。

首先,收集的数据类型很重要,例如:在社交媒体上表达的意见与监控在线购买习惯不同。虽然前者是个人的主动选择,他们通常意识到所用平台的公共性质,但后者通常不是我们敏锐地意识到的在线活动的一个方面。其次,收集数据的透明度很重要。我们都勾选了“条款和条件”的框,但隐私条款通常被埋在几页长的小字中,很容易被忽视。重要的是要要求监控、记录和有时出售我们数据的网站提供更多警告和隐私声明。这让我想到了关于高吞吐量数据管理的合法性和风险的讨论的第三点,即将数据出售或泄露给二级实体的可能性,这些实体可能是邪恶的,或者只是不符合个人的利益。这是很重要的一点,因为它强调了获取和记录个人数据的实体的责任,以及他们对用户福祉的承诺。

总之,这些要点使我们每个人、互联网用户以及获取数据的公司/机构都负有共同的责任。虽然互联网用户应该意识到他们在线行为的公共性质——从社交媒体活动到简单的在线购买,但数据采集实体应该告知用户他们收集什么类型的数据,目的是什么,以及谁可以看到和处理数据。

阅读清单

‘1984’ by George Orwell

A dystopian masterpiece portraying a society devoid of privacy, intimacy, and humanity, serving as a cautionary tale against the perils of fascism and a crucial read for democracy’s understanding.

‘Uncanny Valley’ by Anna Wiener

A captivating memoir delving into life in Silicon Valley, shedding light on the culture shaped by tech giants, unveiling the magnitude of data collection by big firms, and its potential misuse.

‘The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power’ by Shoshana Zuboff

An essential exploration detailing how the erosion of privacy intertwines with the modern economy, highlighting the transformation of information into currency and illuminating the normalization of mass data collection.

‘Privacy and Freedom’ by Alan F. Westin

A foundational study from the late 1960s, examining privacy in America during a crucial historical moment, offering comprehensive insights into the changes and threats to privacy, making it a pivotal text in the field.

‘No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance State’ by Glenn Greenwald

A revealing account of NSA contractor Edward Snowden’s whistleblowing, exposing illegal surveillance practices by the U.S. government and triggering significant discussions about American privacy and surveillance’s future.

Neuroengineering

Breaking down the boundaries between humans and machine. In a sense, some of us can already be considered to be human-smartphone hybrids. Researchers and the tech industry are developing better and better approaches for breaking down the boundaries between humans and machines.

Will we become superhuman and immortal – and do we want to?

打破人与机器之间的界限。从某种意义上说,我们中的一些人已经可以被认为是人类与智能手机的混合体。研究人员和科技行业正在开发越来越好的方法,以打破人与机器之间的界限。

我们会成为超人和不朽的人吗——我们想成为吗?

教授点评

在许多帕金森病患者中,在大脑的某些部位植入电极可以减轻运动问题(“深部脑刺激”)。通过将大脑与计算机连接起来来恢复痴呆患者的认知功能,这不是很神奇吗?在日常生活中,想象一下,你可以简单地将一门新语言或高级数学技能“上传”到你的大脑中。有朝一日,是否有可能将我们个性的一部分“下载”到设备上,将其保存到某种虚拟的不朽中?技术和道德上的限制在哪里?

阅读清单

A profound work in social anthropology exploring human culture as a reaction to the inescapable fact of mortality, offering insights into the neurotic aspects of human behavior and presenting an unsettling disquisition on the inherent peculiarity of human nature.

‘The Singularity is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology’ by Ray Kurzweil

Kurzweil’s monumental work is a fusion of religious mysticism and technological futurism, envisioning a future convergence known as the Singularity, where AI achieves such supremacy that humans merge with technology, becoming immortal beings of infinite intelligence and capability.

‘Technics and Civilization’ by Lewis Mumford

Mumford’s 1934 polemic foresaw the mechanization of human life, contending that the machine age commenced when humans began treating each other as machines, offering a prescient critique of the mechanization of human existence.

‘A Cyborg Manifesto’ by Donna Haraway

Haraway’s provocative 1984 polemic repurposes the sci-fi concept of the cyborg for feminist discourse, depicting it as a postmodern collective and personal self, advocating for a redefined feminist identity, and challenging the male-dominated narrative of technology and humanity.

‘Zero K’ by Don DeLillo

DeLillo’s novel delves into the story of an aging billionaire seeking cryogenic preservation for himself and his dying wife, reflecting echoes of the transhumanist movement and the Silicon Valley obsession with transformative technology, encapsulating the broader paradoxes of modern culture’s relationship with technology and the desire for eternal life.

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